In recent months, Searchlight‘s Norwegian sister magazine Monitor
has conducted an in-depth investigation of background of the so-called
Institute for Norwegian Occupation History (INO), and the still active war-time
nazis who stand behind it.
The real history of the INO * began just after the war when former members of the Norwegian Nazi party (Nasjonal Samling - NS) formed a network of veterans‘ clubs in a bid to salvage something from their shattered organisation and discredited ideology.
One of these nazis, the teacher Nils Vikdal, produced the stencil Skolenytt
( “Schoolnews”) which later turned into the still-published newspaper Folk
og Land ** (People and
The campaign, aimed at clearing the names of traitors was organised through the "Sambandet for sosialoppreisning" (Union for Social Rehabilitation). Because the organisation‘s prime aim was to get treason verdicts overturned, the old nazi network steered clear of active involvement in everyday politics in Norway but maintained very close links with the post-war international fascist network.
Top luminaries in these circles, including the Swedish fascist Per Engdahl, the Austrian former SS commando Otto Skorzeny and the Belgian SS-general Leon Degrelle were all numbered among the good friends of the Norwegian war-time traitors while, at the same time, Union‘s members participated secretly in international nazi-assemblies, including the so-called Malmö International and the European Social Movement. Norwegian nazi exiles in Sweden and South-America were also to be found helping out with cash and political links.
These nazis, who were waiting for better days, got their first real good
news in two decades when, in the 1960s, a new generation of right-wing extremists
emerged. Some of these rightists were ultra-liberal and right wing radicals
who later drifted into political passivity or joined more conformist ultra
right-wing parties like the Fremskrittspartiet (Progress Party).
Those who oversaw this training were the former chief of staff of the Norwegian
nazi militia Orvar Sæther and the former editor of the nazi
war-time newspaper Fritt Folk Odd Melsom.
INO was not the only new right-wing extremist group to surface in that
year. At the same time, Erik Blcher appeared on the scene with Norsk Front
cheered on by the war-time nazis in the INO. At the start, Erik Rune Hansen
was both in the leadership of Norsk Front and an editor of Folk og land.
Generally, though, the old war-time nazis who were backing the Norsk Front
agreed with and shared Blücher‘s dreams and hopes of parliamentary
success. The most well-known of these where SS-veteran Ole Darbu (see
separate article), Nils Andreas Nilsen, who would later be convicted
for racism and Asbjørn I. Bru who wrote a book denying the Holocaust.
Ever since then, the old nazis have kept a low profile towards the younger extremists. Nevertheless, they do crop up from time to time on the election-lists of hard core racist and anti-immigration organisations like Hvit valgallianse, Fedrelandspartiet or the Nasjonaldemokratene. The SS-veteran Arne Grønlund Borgir (see separate article) was the leader of one such organisation called “Help the aliens home, or we‘ll lose our country”.
After all their strenuous efforts to nurture a new generation of nazis,
1980s was distressing for the old nazis. Most of the Norsk Front members
had dropped out and the nazis revival was quickly discredited through a
series of shootings and bombings. The circulation of Folk og land plummeted,
their financial situation was so dismal that, by the beginning of the 1990s,
they were forced to sell their run-down and shabby premises at Oslo‘s east-end
for only 12,000 pounds.
The results of this more low profile and more cautious approach has become
visible in recent years. There are several books on the market presenting
nazi facts and conclusions but with enormous errors and factual holes in
them. These publications carry the very evident fingerprints of INO.
As time goes on, the old Quislings are become fewer and weakened by age
and sickness. They are now seeking worthy inheritors. As early as
the start of the 1990s they recognised this pressing problem and tried to
resolve it by running historical discussion groups for young people through
INO‘s youth-office Helge Sæther.
The children of war-time Norwegian nazis were treated in a disgraceful
way. This is one of the darkest chapters in post-war Norwegian history.
Many of the children suffered harassment and were often held responsible
for their parents‘ crimes.
Ms Stridsklev has presented herself as a scientist and delivered a report
on the liquidations by the anti-fascist resistance movements during
the war. To nobody‘s surprise, her report concluded that the resistance
killed at least twice as other sources claims. Stridsklev‘s report is extremely
defective. and looking closer at its author we find her to be one of INO‘s
younger activists, and a spokeswoman for the grotesquely misnamed “Institute”.
She has infamously claimed that Quisling‘s nazi party was not anti-Semitic.
Her endeavours have, to date, shown little success but despite the fact that her soires attract few visitors ,the atmosphere is said to be good with the gatherings lasting into the late hours. Recordings of old speeches are played and the songs heard and sung. Those taking part get free literature, too: Gjallarhorn,the magazine of the NNSB, is mailed to them from Poland where presumably the leader of NSB Erik Rune Hansen is present.
Stridsklev is also fond of the postal system, indefatigably mailing hundreds
of invitation letters for “meeting of friends”. Most of the addresses
are derived from INO‘s extensive archives. The costs of this activity
must be high, and, even though Norwegian doctors are well paid, outside
contributions must be helping Stridsklev‘s work.
Sofus Kahrs escaped from imprisonment and left with ten other traitors
for Argentina in the boat Solbris for a life in Argentina‘s Norwegian nazi
colony. Petter Kahrs has defended his father‘s actions during WW2
in several newspaper interviews, describing SS-volunteers as “men fighting
for what they believed in”.
A whole range of nazi groups and circles are candidates are competing to inherit the mantle of the war-time nazis. Among them are those around the magazine Alternativt samfunn and Norges Patriotiske Enhetsparti (NPE), led by Knut Westland.
The INO is wise enough to not to put all its cards on a single would-be
crown prince or group and it possible to see the emergence of an axis of
different persons and groups. The biggest contender, though, is the NPE.
With his companion from the FMI, Vilfred Hansen and Fritt Forum‘s Lillian
Evant, he attempted two years ago to form a Norwegian pagan Aasa-belief
society but the government refused to recognise this gang of Odin worshippers
as a genuine religious society. At the start of the 1990s, he set up the
Some people merely believe Westland to be a oddball but this is not entirely true. The NPE has supporters from the old INO milieu, and some former members of the now defunct nazi Norsk Front/Nasjonalt Folkeparti as well some members from the current NNSB. Among those with especially good relations with NPE is the former Norsk Front activist and former comrade of Erik Blücher, Tor Petter Hadland.
At the same time as declaring a open and aggressive nationalism, the NPE‘s
political programme does not openly advocate racial theories and white supremacy.
It is full of allusions in addition to an uncompromising resistance
to immigration. In an “ABC for young patriots” the NPE writes under the
headline “Who is against us?”: "Our real enemies, those who are also
directly and indirectly behind immigration to Norway and Europe, those managing
the international banking and finance-worldIIt is those people who are behind
the so-called money-market, living off speculations and usury. We refer
to them with the common-title “bankers.”
In the small town of Elverum sits Westland‘s main future rivals for
credibility, cash and the old nazi franchise. From his bunker there, Even
Lorch-Falch publishes a weird magazine called Alternativt Samfunn (Alternative
In between all this trash however, can be found contributions by well-known
racists like Olav Hoaas and rabid historical revisionists like Ola Misvær.
Significantly, the war-time Norwegian nazi party‘s propaganda chief
in Oslo, Ørnulf Myklestad also pens articles for writes in
Another eager author is Rolv Olsen from Tolga, former editorial secretary in Folk og land . He is one of the most insistent defenders of the war-time nazis, and is especially occupied with research about the sole case of fighting between the Norwegian Waffen SS and the Norwegian resistance in Eggedal during the war. He frequently brags about alleged meetings of INO with WW2 resistance veterans. We assume that he is referring to the well-known opponent of immigration and would-be parliamentarian, Erik Gjems Onstad. Onstad, who was in the resistance, has also been defence lawyer in a number of cases against known criminals on the extreme right.
Various writers from Folk og land also write in Alternativt samfunn. A
prominent example is Inger Cecilie Stridsklev, who specialises in historical
revisionism. In one article she makes her own definition of the concept
of “liquidation” citing the example of a political prisoner who, after escaping
from starvation and torture by two men, shoots himself. Stridsklev asks
if his freedom was more worth than the lives of the torturers who were shot
during his escape.
It is in these muddy waters that the tired old nazis of INO are fishing
to find worthy inheritors. Inger Cecilie Stridsklev can play the role of
open revisionist while Alternativt samfunn can be the place to say those
things that cannot be said in the rather the old fashioned and staid Folk
og land. Westland, on the other hand, is beavering away to build an extremist
party liberally garnished with democratic phrases in the forlorn hope of
restoring honour and credit to Quisling.
The history of the Quisling movement‘s antisemitism is a major problem for these fascists. In addition to claiming ludicrously that German attacks and general warfare were liquidations perpetrated by the Norwegian resistance, Inger Cecilie Stridsklev exert herself frantically to whitewash NS.
In an article in the Oslo paper Aftenposten at the turn of the year, Stridsklev claimed tha Quisling‘s Nasjonal Samling (NS) was not anti-Semitic. She also asserted that Quisling was one of the Norwegians to “save” most Jews. Because some might naively accept this, we will take a closer look at her claims.
In the book Den norske nasjonalssosialismen (Norwegian National
Socialism) by Dahl, Hagtvedt and Hjeltnes, it is emphasised that the NS
did not get much political support before the war as a result of its anti-Semitism.
Several leading members left NS, finding the persecution of the Jews to
be an unbearable political strain. But antisemitism there was a-plenty.
One of the most extreme exponents of anti-Semitism in NS was Mrs. Halldis
Neegård Østby, the editor of NS-magazine Fritt
Folk (Free people). Østby was also - unusual for a woman to reach
such prominence at the time - the party‘s propaganda leader.
The claim that traitor Quisling was a saviour for the Jews originates from
his defence speech in court. This referred to Quislings work as Fridtjof
Nansen’s co-worker in Russia and Armenia in the 1920s, and had nothing to
do with Quisling‘s actions and ideas after the foundation of the Nasjonal
The only conclusion we can draw, therefore, is that either Stridsklev has
not read all the most obvious books and publications or she chooses
to ignore the facts and present lies as truth. This is enough to label her
as a 24-carat historical revisionist.
There exists a myriad of different “veterans” associations for former Waffen SS-members. Many of the latter are very camera shy but there are also some which have nothing against posing for the pictures while holding their commemorations.
Kameradenwerk Korps Steiner (KKS) *** is one of the more clandestine of the associations, in its own eyes, the elite among former soldiers of the SS. The KKS organises soldiers who fought under the SS general Felix Steiner, one of Hitler‘s favourites.
In Hitler‘s fantasies, Steiner was the general who would rescue besieged Berlin in the days of April and May 1945 and turn the tide of imminent defeat. The deranged and drugged Fhrer was not aware that Steiner’s Panzerkorps was by then no more than a few hundred ragged and badly equipped soldiers.
In 1951, German SS-veterans formed the organisation HIAG, led by ex-SS
general Paul Hausser together with Felix Steiner and Herbert Gille. HIAG
was to become a very successful lobbying group for Germany‘s most dedicated
nazi soldiers. It organised a service to search for missing soldiers, and
a very strong relief fund.
HIAG, now officially dissolved, published the magazine Der Freiwillige, a publication full of militaristic nostalgia. The cover of the still published magazine is always printed, appropriately, in the colours of national socialism P red, black and white P and leaves no doubt about its politics.
When Felix Steiner died in 1966, Kameradenwerk Korps Steiner was formed. It soon had members in Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, the Baltic states and Norway. The highlight in the KKS calendar is the three day reunion in Germany every second April but members of the Kameradenwerk have attended the annual nazi rallies in Diksmuide in Belgium.
From the Kameradenwerk, there have also been links to groups like the banned Wiking Jugend in Germany, the Swedish nazi terror network formerly known as Vitt Ariskt Motstånd, nazis in Southern America and to Erik Blücher‘s former Norsk Front and Jack Erik Kjuus‘ Hvit Valgallianse in Norway.
When the organisation‘s membership and contact list was obtained by Searchlight
a few years ago, it was found to contain the names of several hundred former
SS-soldiers who had served under Steiner, together with details of their
former service and current addresses.
Olaf T. Lindvig
When the Germans invaded Norway, he fought in battles on the Norwegian
side. After the surrender, policeman Lindvig, a policeman, became
a member of Vidkun Quisling‘s Nasjonal Samling (NS).
The tall and well built Lindvig more than matched the Nazi German ideal
of an Aryan man. He was frequently engaged in front-line combat, and was
seriously wounded three times.
Since 1973, Lindvig and his wife Ilsa have not just been socialising with
the declining band of old SS men but have been busy trying to win compensation
for estates and properties that Lindvig‘s father-in-law left behind in Germany.
Hauptsturmfhrer Lindvig does not participate in INO‘s daily activities but he is always present at “front fighters” gatherings and on their trips to the old battle grounds on the Eastern-front. When the old nazis in the sinister Kameradenwerk Korps Steiner drew up their list, his name was an automatic inclusion.
Arne Grønlund Borgir
For a time, Borgir edited Rapporten (The Report), the internal magazine
for SS veterans from Wiking Division . Those who know Borgir, describe him
as an uncompromising and inveterate revisionist. Not content with just writing
about the “heroic” deeds of the “good old days”, he is also active on the
current political scene.
The two parties later formed the Hvit Valgalliannse (White Electoral Alliance). Borgir is said to be working on a book where the theme of “world Jewry” is a prominent part of the plot. He has on several occasions been observed sneaking around the edges of anti-racist demonstrations and gatherings in Oslo.
In 1979, Darbu was part of the National Peoples Party‘s attempt to contest elections through the sleeping mini-party Norwegian Democratic Party. Indeed, he headed the party list for the local elections in Oslo, ahead of the former intelligence agent Hans Otto Meyer.
Darbu, however, was of the opinion that Blücher‘s approach was far
too cautious. Because of this he started, for the second time in Norwegian
history, the Nasjonal Samling in 1980. Even though Darbu travelled around
the country, claiming to have 200 members, the attempt flopped. This was
partly due to intrigues among his former “front-fighter” comrades. A disappointed
Darbu returned to the National Peoples Party.
The INO milieu likes to present itself as “mild” revisionists, defending Quisling, but not National Socialism and antisemitism. A look at the background of two important activists, Eivind Saxlund and Ørnulf Myklestad, indicates that this is not the whole truth.
Eivind Saxlund was already a member of Quisling‘s Nasjonal Samling (NS)
before the war and on the 9 April 1940 he renewed his membership. He claims
that he joined so that he “would contribute so the country should get
a national government able to defend our interests against the (German)
After serving sentence for treason, Saxlund completed his education and graduated from law school to become a lawyer. As time went by, he ended up in the Norwegian Department of Finance, where he, before he retired, he ended up as a deputy director.
Saxlund has never tried to hide his past as a NS member. He has participated
in several TV series and book releases connected with Norwegian war-history.
Such occasions, he uses to defend Quisling and the Nasjonal Samling, but
claims he lost his faith in national socialism during the war: “The belief
that national socialist ideology would bring anything good was lost.
At the same time I still thought that the Nasjonal Samling could slow down
Another disturbing fact about Saxlund is that his name appears on the contact
lists of the Kameradenwerk Korps Steiner. This last fact indicates
that Saxlund‘s engagement is not only social and nostalgic, because the
Kameradenwerk cultivates close connections with today‘s German neo-nazis
and violent skinheads. Another fact that tells much about Saxlund is that
he is a subscriber to the German fascist publication Junge Freiheit, a magazine
for the more intellectual German right-wing extremists.
His grandfather of the same name, Supreme-Court lawyer Eivind Saxlund,
was a national socialist before the term was invented. In 1910, he
published the book Jøder og Gojim (Jews and goyim) which, alongside
The Protocolls of the learned elders of Zion, is without a doubt the worst
antisemitic book published in Norway before the Second World War.
Saxlund‘s book was published in several editions until the 1920s and caused a celebrated law-suit in 1923, when the author sued the journalist Paul Gjesdahl, who had called the book by its right name: “Antisemitic trash-literature”. The court ruled unanimously in favour of Gjesdahl.
Saxlund, however, continued his crusade for racial purity. The same year
he published his main work, Livsanskuelse på biologisk grunnlag (Biological-based
This antisemitic Saxlund family tradition was continued by one of Eivind
Saxlund the elder‘s sons, the academically well qualified Sigurd
Saxlund. This man, the uncle of the still-living Eivind, tried as early
as 1933 to publish his anti-Jewish, racial-biological tirades in the
pamphlet Rase og Kultur (Race and Culture).
As headmaster of an high school in Arendal in southern
Norway, and as nazi NS mayor in the city, Sigurd Saxlund made his
own distinctive contribution to the “awakening of the race”.
Nevertheless, we can still see the contours of the conspiracy-paranoia
that frequently accompanies antisemitism. Such considerations preoccupy
another important activist in the INO-milieu, Ørnulf Myklestad.
He was to become fanatical nazi, holding many important positions in the
nazi-movement. He was NS secretary for the counties of Bergen and Hordaland
and county propaganda chief in greater Oslo.
Both his book about the Freemasons and the third Norwegian edition of
infamous “Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion” were published by his
own publishing company, Brage boklag.
After the war Myklestad was sentenced to seven years forced labour and was deprived of his civil rights for ten years for his treason. The years in prison did little to moderate his political views. During his imprisonment, Myklestad invented a health-food product that later made him a rich man.
Today, Myklestad keeps a low profile, but is, at 81 years old, still an active behind-the-scenes nazi and antisemite, with connections, not only to INO, but also to younger right-wing extremists such as the infamous Jew-hater and Auschwitz liar Alfred Olsen.
During the past few years Myklestad has funnelled some of his money into the INO-rag Folk og Land, sponsoring extra pages in the paper. When he does this, he uses the cover-name Brage, after the old Nordic god of poetry and, of course, after his old publishing company in “the good old days” when the swastika was flying over Oslo.
Quite the opposite, he was proud of his work in the Nasjonal Samling section Norsk Front and of his propaganda-skills. Altogether, Myklestad was far more conserned about “world Jewry” than about the freemasons.
With visible pride, he boasted about how he had published two of the Norwegian editions of the infamous forgery “The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion”. When we indicated that we had no knowledge about this book, Myklestad eagerly told us that this was “the Jewish plan to gain world-mastery”.
He also gave us the information about how “the Jews are organising the freemasons.” When we asked him whether he knew other persons who could contribute material about the Freemasons, Myklestad immediately volunteered the name of the convicted gun-runner and nazi antisemite Alfred Olsen.
Myklestad, who remembered Olsen‘s telephone number without consulting his
address book, characterised Olsen as “an intelligent devout Catholic”, but
doubted Olsen‘s tactical skills and called him “a bulldozer”. Myklestad
especially praised Olsen for distributing “The Protocols of the Learned
elders of Zion” on the Internet.
og land (People and Country)
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