Written by Monitor for Center for Research and Action on Racism and antisemittism (CERA)


Political context

 The extreme right - political history and general facts
Political parties
 Fremskrittspartiet (The progressparty)Pensjonistpartiet (The pensioneers party)Fedrelandspartiet (The Fatherlandsparty)
 Hvit valgallianse (White ellectoral alliance)Norges Patriotiske Enhetsparti (Norways Patriot unityparty)

 Extraparliamentary groups
 Den Norske Forening (The norwegian association)Folkebevegelsen Mot Innvandring (The popular movement against immigration)
 Institutt for Norsk Okkupasjonshistorie - INO (The Institute for Norwegian Occupation history)Norges Nasjonalsosialistiske bevegelse (Nationalsocialist Movement of NorwayForente Nasjonalister (United Nationalists)Ariske brødre (Aryan brotherhood) | Viking (Wiking)
 ValkyriaVargNorwegian Blood & HonourHvit Revolusjon (White Revolution)Hugin Skins |
Folkets motstansbevegelse (Peoples Resistance Movement)Norsk Arisk Ungdomsfront (Norwegian Aryan Youthfront)
Einsatzgruppen (The Einsatzgroup)Vern av Østfold

Satanism/pagan religion

Music and media

What now?

Political context
After the general elections in September 1997, a minority coalition government, led by the Christian democrat, Kjell Magne Bondevik was formed. The government declared that they will practice a more liberal asylum policy than that of the old social democratic government.

The right-wing opposition in Parliament (Fremskrittspartiet/Progress party) has gained politically from disseminating propaganda for an even stricter asylum policy. Combined with their hostile attitude toward immigrants in general, this position has given them a rise in the polls.

Unemployment among immigrants has remained high, while it decreased in the population as a whole.

There has not been much extreme-right activity in Norway since the Second World War, and, compared with Sweden and Germany, the activity that does exist remains marginal, partly because of the five-year Nazi occupation of the country during the war. The first attempt to re-establish a Norwegian Nazi movement was in the 1970s. This attempt failed due to both the incompetence of the leaders and internal dissent. A series of bomb attacks did not help the neo-Nazis gain any public support.
So, at its peak, Norsk front (Norwegian front) did not have more than 300 members.

From 1987 on, racist groups and parties were founded around the country, and from 1993, militant youth groups started to pop up. These groups flourished especially in 1994 and 1995. Nevertheless, on the whole, the number of active neo-Nazis and organised racists is still small. Some figures will illustrate this: only around 12,000 persons are willing to vote for the two extreme racist parties (White electoral alliance and the Fatherlands party). And only around 1,000 persons are willing to run as their candidates for elections. None of these two parties made any headway in the September 1997 general elections. The Fatherlands party got 0,2% of the vote while the White electoral alliance only managed to present candidates in three counties. They did not gain more than 0,1% of the vote in any of these places, as all of the racist votes were won by the populist Progress party.
As for the militant youth groups, they count, all together, less than 300 members.

After having some growth in 1995 and 1995, the Nazi movement has been diminishing these last two years. Several activists have been arrested and convicted, weapons has been captured by the police and local communities, schools, and local police seem to have taken the problem of their existence seriously. Furthermore, public exposure of their activities, internal quarrels and untalented leaders have helped facilitate this decline in the movement. For the extreme right, the year started disastrously as the police arrested 9 young Nazis, for plotting against the government and for planning to free the convicted Nazi/Satanist murderer and church arsonist, Varg Kristian Vikernes from prison, where he is serving a 21 year-long term. Among the arrested was the leader of the Einsatz group, Tom Kimmo Eiternes, who had escaped from prison where he was serving a sentence for armed robbery and knife-stabbing.
A short time after the police captured 10 stolen rifles an 25 kilos of dynamite from young skinheads in the southern town Kristiansand.

The neo-Nazi’s first public appearance this year was 35 individuals demonstrating outside the South-African embassy in Oslo - for “white justice in South-Africa”. One month later, a number of them marched through the small town of Hoenefoss on the anniversary of the Kristallnacht, shouting “Sieg heil” and “Norway for Norwegians”. Afterwards 11 persons were arrested for the possession of offensive weapons (mostly baseball bats). The major success for the nazis came on New Year’s eve 1997, where, under full police protection, they arranged a White power gig in Nittedal, just outside Oslo. It caused public outrage when it was revealed that the police established road blocks in co-operation with the violent Nazi group Viking.

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Fremskrittspartiet (The Progress party)
Leader: Carl Ivar Hagen

This party made its headway in the 1997 general election, getting 15,3% of the votes mainly because the party leader, Carl I. Hagen and the MPs  Oeystein Hedstroem and Vidar Kleppe played the immigration card during the election campaign. They also launched a campaign of hatred against the Saami (Lapp) minority. One of their MPs, Fridtjof Frank Gundersen, described his journey to the north of Norway as “a trip down to Hell”!

Pensjonistpartiet (The pensioner’s party)
This is, as the name suggests, mainly a party for old people. The party is not declared racist but plays the immigration card in their election campaigns. One of the party’s spokespersons publicly admitted that they deliberately played immigrants against old people to attract attention in the election campaign. Several well-known racists and former Nazi activists have also run as candidates for the party. The party did not get mentionable support in the latest election (16,064 votes, i.e., 0.62%).
The party demanded obligatory courses in birth control for immigrants from the Third World.

Fedrelandspartiet (The Fatherland party)
Leader: Harald Trefall
Youth leader: Arnljot Moseng

This party consists primarily of elderly men. They are strongly opposed to immigration, and nationalism pervades the entire party program. In the parliamentary elections of 1993, the party only got 11,546 votes, 0.5% of the electorate. In the local elections two years later, it did not win more than 5,004 votes. In 1997, the number of votes was even lower (3,775 votes and 0.15%). In 1995, 4 of the party’s 1993 parliamentary candidates were arrested after Nazi riots in Oslo. Among the arrested were their youth leader and party secretary, Arnljot Moseng, as well as the youth organisation treasurer, Andreas Wang. Moseng is also, secretly, operating a Website named Norges nasjonalistiske bevegelse (Norwegian nationalist movement). This site is dedicated to boasting about attacks on anti-racists and young left-wingers, and to Holocaust denial. Through this “movement”, Moseng has contacts with the British group, International Third Position.
Wang was also arrested on May 17, the Norwegian national holiday, after several neo-Nazis shot at anti-racist demonstrators outside a house where the former were celebrating. Wang is a former member of the violent Oslo group Viking. Many well-known neo-Nazis have been on different lists of the Fatherland party for local elections. Normally, between the elections, the  party does not show much activity. After the 1997 election the party has been almost dormant. Some leading cadres are leaving their positions in the party in bitterness for the lack of electoral success. To add stones to the burden, members of their youth organisation have been accused of being police informers and physically attacked by members of the Viking group.

Hvit valgallianse (The White Electoral Alliance)
Party leader: Jack Erik Kjuus
Youth leader: Leonard Nesdal

This party is an amalgamation of two fringe groups, Stopp innvandringen and Hjelp de fremmedkulturelle hjem ellers mister vi landet värt. (Stop immigration and Help the remote culturals [meaning non-Europeans] back home or we will lose our country). The first is led by Jack Erik Kjuus and the latter by convicted treator and SS-veteran, Arne Borgir - APOLOGY -.
The youth leader, Leonard Nesdal, has been arrested twice during riots in Oslo. He has also been connected with the Viking group.
The party became infamous for having demanded the forced sterilisation of adopted children and foreigners married to Norwegians. In the summer 1997, Kjuus was convicted for these statements to a 60-day suspended sentence and a penalty of 20,000 Norwegian kroner. He appealed to the supreme court, which upheld the ruling from the local court and also confirmed the conviction of Kjuus for his statements on forced abortion for Norwegian women getting pregnant by foreigners.  These events caused big headlines in all the major newspapers, as many liberal intellectuals supported Kjuus’ right to express his opinions.

Norges patriotiske enhetsparti (The Patriot Unity Party of Norway)
Leader: Knut Westland

This party has never participated in any elections. Its membership is suggestively low, though it is still the most consistent nationalistic party in Norway. Its ideas about how to organise Norwegian society are, in many ways, similar to those of Benito Mussolini or the Norwegian war-time pro-Nazi leader, Vidkun Quisling. The party claims it is not national-socialist, but supports a third way between capitalism and socialism. The party mainly recruits its members among former SS soldiers and members of the war-time Quisling party.

Westland, the party leader is a captain in the Norwegian army. Formerly in charge of the Oslo branch of the Norwegian officers’ union, he was expelled in 1996. Westland started his political career as a board member in the now almost dormant Folkebevegelsen mot innvandring (The popular movement against immigration).

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These groups include all racist, fascist and extreme-right movements which share one thing in common: they do not, as organisations, participate in elections. Many of their members are active in different extreme-right groups and parties. The contradictory alliances between persons and groups are numerous, overlapping and changing all the time. Yet, essentially, we can divide these groups into two different types: militant youth groups and more legal groups with mainly elderly members. Nevertheless, it is also true that some cadres are using their work in one group or party as a front for the illegal activities on the agenda of other more radical groups.

Den norske forening (The Norwegian Association)
Leader: Torfinn Hellandsvik

This organisation tries to present itself as a legal think-tank concerned with problems linked to immigration. In fact many of its members have a past in the notoriously racist organisation Folkebevegelsen mot innvandring (see below).
One such member is the organisation’s leader, Torstein Hellandsvik, who was a parliamentary candidate for Stopp innvandringen in 1989. In the 1993 parliamentary elections, he was also a candidate for Fedrelandspartiet.
The organisation and its members concentrate on misrepresenting immigration statistics. Its members also write loads of readers’ letters to newspapers. Like Hellandsvik, many of the members belong to political parties.

Folkebevegelsen mot innvandring (The Popular Movement against Immigration)
Leader: Bjoern Voldnes

When founded in 1987 this was the first racist organisation with some public appeal. At its peak it had several hundred members. This however did not last long. The leader, Arne Myrdal, was arrested and later convicted for planning to bomb a refugee camp at Tromoeya in the south of Norway. Myrdal was subsequently expelled from the organisation and its public support vanished. Almost every member of any Norwegian racist and fascist group started their “career” in this group which, today, is almost practically non-existent. The group manages to arrange an annual convention designed to re-elect its leaders, however. This excepted, the only visible sign of activity can be found in one local branch on the west coast of Norway. As in Den Norske Forening, many members of the Folkebevegelsen mot innvandring are members of or have connections with other parties and organisations. For instance, the leader of the Fatherlands party, Harald Trefall, was present at the last convention in June 1996. Except from their annual meeting, there has been no signs of visible activity from this organisation in 1997.

Institutt for norsk okkupasjonshistorie (Institute for the History of Occupied Norway)
Leader:  Knut Baardseth

This institute is not an authentic research institution. It is a revisionist organisation for such wartime criminals as former members of the Quisling party and the Waffen SS. Its main purpose is to cleanse their reputation and defend their actions during World War II. The institute awards scholarships to students who want to write about the Second World War.
The milieu around the “institute” arranges trips to the old battlefields on the eastern fronts and cultivate their contacts with different SS veteran organisations such as the German organisation HIAG. They also have an active branch of the Kammeradenwerk korps Steiner. Last year there seems to have been increased activity around the institute, as they have managed to raise money for their work and mobilise younger forces, such as the people in The Norwegian Patriot Unity party.

Norges nasjonalsosialistiske bevegelse (National socialist movement of Norway) (Former Zorn 88)
Leader: Erik Rune Hansen

This group is avowedly national-socialist. Portraits of Hitler and swastikas in its publications, Gjallarhorn and their webpage, leave no doubt as to where it stands. In all probability, its membership does not exceed fifty persons. They are Holocaust deniers and publish lots of well-known revisionist material. Some of the members are former war-time criminals while others once belonged to the now defunct neo-Nazi party of the ’70s, Norsk Front (Norwegian Front).
Except for its participation in the Rudolf Hess memorial marches in Sweden and Denmark, the group does not have much activity. There is evidence suggesting a more active and aggressive attitude, wherein the group is seeking closer co-operation with Nazis in Sweden and Denmark. The group is also planning to organise a Nordic summer camp in Norway in the summer of 1998. It is also known that several of the groups’ members are active in other right-wing organisations.

Forente nasjonalister (United nationalists)
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The purpose of this movement is to affiliate all the different Norwegian groups with one organization and co-ordinate their work. It uses such well-known far-right symbols such as the Celtic cross and the SS totenkopf (skullhead) as logos. The organisation claims to be built on non-democratic principles. No one is actually elected but rather selected. Only one person in the leadership has complete control over the organisation. On one of its posters, the group threatens to use terrorism if it is not taken seriously. It has three leaders, one of whom is responsible for collecting intelligence on political opponents. After some of the leading members were arrested by Norwegian police intelligence in the spring of 1997, the activities seem to have ceased. Probably the group will end up as another name on the endless list of defunct paper organisations that have never succeeded to unite the Norwegian extreme right.

Ariske broedre (Aryan brothers)/Toensberg skins
Leader: Fredrik Bakke

These are neo-Nazis, some of them skinheads, in the small Norwegian town of Toensberg, for some years now a stronghold for violent neo-Nazis. Toensberg is also one of the very few places in Norway where they managed to recruit new members during 1996. Two young members of this movement were arrested in autumn 1996 for a firebomb attack against a Kurd family. One of its spokesmen claimed that they are presently members of the local branch of Forente nasjonalister. In 1997 there has not been very much activity, as many of the members have been imprisoned for different acts of violence.

Leader: Eirik Ragnar Solheim

This violent group is based in Oslo. Its members are mainly middle-class adolescents from “respectable” neighbourhoods. Members wear a uniform with a brown shirt and black trousers. In spite of rapid growth in 1994 and 1995, the group was entirely inactive from the summer of 1996. Its leader, Solheim, was sentenced to a three month suspended jail term on two occasions for threatening people with a gun. Viking’s biggest fiasco was when it tried to infiltrate the youth organisation of the Progress party. The plan was publicly exposed, and, some time later, the infiltrators were expelled from the party. The group’s members have also participated in several attacks against anti-racist activists and young immigrants. After great efforts from local police and social workers, many young members, especially on the fringe of the group left the milieu.
In the spring 1997, several of the group’s members were arrested and charged for plotting against the government. This seems to have given the group some prestige within the Nazi milieu, and they have managed to recruit some new, young members through the year. Some members of the group were also involved in an attack on a leading cadre in the Fatherland party’s youth organisation. The young man, accused of being a police informer, was hit in the knee with an axe. The Viking members were also among the organisers of the Nazi concert in Nittedal on New Year’s eve.

Leader: Mette Holter

This is a female neo-Nazi group with branches in Oslo, Hoenefoss and Drammen. It was founded to keep girls in the movement even after they had broken up with their boyfriends. Another such female group is Jenter for Norge, (Girls for Norway), in the southern town of Risoer, an organisation connected to the group Hvit revolusjon (see below). Other female groups to be mentioned are: Embla, at Romerike just outside of Oslo, Huldra in Trondheim (mid-Norway) and Gyda in the northern town of Bodø. None of these groups seems to have any mentionable activity today, and mainly exists only on paper.

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(Short for Vern av rikets grenser/Protect the country’s borders. The word “varg” also means wolf)
Leader: Stig Runar Woxen

This group, from Romerike (east of Oslo) participated among others in the Hess memorial march in Trollhättan (Sweden) in August 1996. Its members are famous in their neighbourhood for their capacity for drinking and their eagerness to fight. The group members participate in hate-concerts, and on the Kristallnacht anniversary, a young anti-racist was attacked by some of the members.

Riksfronten/Norwegian Blood & Honour
A group of Nazis at Eidsvoll and Jessheim, just north of Oslo, has formed “Blood and Honour”. The leader of the Norwegian B&H, Per Oeyvind Monge, publicly admits that he is a contact for Combat 18 in Norway. The group viciously attacked the May-day demonstration, hurling fireworks and stones into the anti-racist march. They have also been involved in several other serious violent incidents.

Hvit revolusjon (White revolution)
Leader: Kjetil Remen

This neo-Nazi group in the southern town of Risoer has not been too active and its membership is low. Some of the group’s central members also belonged to Vern om Risoer (Protect Risoer). This group proved to be something of a flop, and even manages to evoke the ridicule from other neo-Nazis.

Hugin skins
Leaders: Robin Skaiaa and David Nygaard

This group has been known under different names, and has been connected to other groups such as the Oslo-based Viking group. They have recruited members from 12 years of age. The group has been involved in several serious violent incidents, and many of the members have been convicted. Many of the members are former Satanists. Local social workers suggest that the number of active members and sympathisers is 30 persons.
The activity seems to have diminished after the police arrested 4 of the members for the theft of ten Mauser rifles and 30 kilos of dynamite. Some of the dynamite was given to Nazis in Oslo, while some of it was found in the premises of a local bike-club. The remaining 25 kilos were found under one of the group member’s bed!

Folkets motstandsbeveglse (The Peoples Resistance Movement)
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Leader: Alfredo Olsen

This is perhaps the most bizarre of all the Norwegian extreme-right groups. It probably has less than ten members. The group is Catholic, fascist and extremely antisemitic. It has extensive contacts with Holocaust deniers all over the world. The leader, Alfredo Olsen, was convicted for  receiving ten stolen assault rifles from the army. He produces lots of booklets in which he discusses various conspiracy theories, most of them including Jewish plots to take over the world. Olsen operates a website called Holy War, where he promotes his bizarre theories. His rabid antisemitism is admired by some of the hard-core former SS members.

Norsk arisk ungdomsfront (Norwegian Aryan Youth front)
Leader: Fred Ove Olsen

This group is based in the small town of Hoenefoss, about 50 kilometres west of Oslo. This is one of the few neo-Nazi groups which did not see its membership decrease over the course of 1996. In January 1996, its leader, Fred Ove Olsen, was expelled from the army because of his activities.
The group has been involved in shooting incidents and attacks against young anti-racists. For instance, one Iranian refugee family was attacked with military tear gas grenades while its members were sleeping. Since 1993, more than 20 violent incidents have been reported, together with at least five or six shooting incidents. The number of threats and incidents of harassment is not known.
On the Kristallnacht (9 November), the group organised a march in the centre of Hoenefoss, mobilising Nazis from the surrounding area and Oslo. The local police, which have been criticised for not taking this violence seriously, allowed the them to march through the town. After the march, 11 persons were arrested for the possession of offensive weapons.
Later the same night, shops in Asker, a small centre just outside Oslo, was smeared with swastika paintings, and a swastika flag was raised outside the local bank.

Einsatzgruppen (The Einsatz group)/Ku Klux Klan
Leader: Tom Kimmo Eiternes
The group members are known to be more violent than politically skilled. After attacking people in Haugesund in 1996, one of the members could not be put on trial because, according to the police psychiatrist, his intelligence was too low. The group also tried to start a Norwegian branch of the Ku Klux Klan, the only visible sign of such plans as of present being the two of them posing in a newspaper in Klan garb.

The group members just got out of prison after serving sentences for armed robbery and knife-stabbing. While on the run, the leader, Tom Kimmo Eiternes, was arrested in a forest, dressed in a bullet-proof vest and camouflage gear. He was charged with plotting against the government and for planning to free the convicted murderer and church-arsonist, Varg Kristian Vikernes, from prison. Vikernes, a former Satanist, has now declared himself a national socialist and an Odinist. He has produced a book, Vargsmaal, (Wolfs’ speach), with extremely antisemitic contents, which is now sold by mail order. The publisher is a leading person in the Norwegian national-socialist movement, Jan Erik Kvamsdal, who is also planning to print a new Norwegian edition of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. (the last edition was published in 1944, during the German occupation). After being released from prison, Eiternes arranged a demonstration outside the South-African embassy in Oslo. The purpose was to show solidarity with the white population in South-Africa. The demonstration was a flop, as Eiternes, dressed in Ku Klux Klan garb, had to run from furious anti-racist counter-demonstrators. He finally had to call the police and ask them to drive him away.

Vern av Oestfold (Protect Oestfold)
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Leader: Oeyvind Olsen

This is an extremely violent and vicious group whose members openly carry Nazi symbols such as the swastika and also wear uniforms. It is based in Moss, not far from the Swedish border. The members participated over the last two years in the Hess memorial marches in Denmark and Sweden. Leader Oeyvind Olsen was arrested in February 1995 after members shot at anti-racist demonstrators. Since then, the group has been almost dormant.


In Norway there is a quite large black metal/Satanist environment. Satanic rock in Norway has attracted the same groups as Nazi rock has in, for instance, Sweden and Germany.

Many of the bands have declared themselves nationalist or racist. For some of the bands it is unclear whether they are Satanists or Odinists. Many of their texts are anti-Christian or antisemitic. Norwegian Satanists have burned a number of churches and vandalised graveyards. One of the leading figures in Norwegian black metal is “Varg” Kristian Vikernes, also named “Count Grishnak”, now serving a 21-year prison term for murder and arson. Vikernes has become a cult figure for young black metal fans. After being imprisoned he declared himself a neo-Nazi and an Odinist. Norwegian Nazis have, with some success, tried to recruit people from the Satanists’ ranks. Satanist fanzines (like Genocide magazine) also print ads for Nazi magazines. Different Nazi publications have published interviews and articles from the Satanist scene. The Zorn 88 magazine Gjallarhorn, for instance, named Vikernes as “an apprentice without a master”.

Right extremists have also tried to establish the Norwegian Aasatrusociety, a group of Odinists (a pagan cult referring to old Scandinavian mythology: Aasatru). The leader of this organisation also leads The Patriot Unity party of Norway. Another, Vilfred Hansen, has a past in the popular movement against immigration and the third, Lillian Evant, is a member of the editorial group of Fritt Forum .

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The largest magazine is Fritt Forum (Free Forum), edited by Michael Knutsen. Although traditionally it is considered to be moderate nationalist, in the last couple of years it has begun opening its columns to militant Nazi commentaries, thereby consolidating the magazine’s position in the market as the leading extreme-right publication. From time to time, other openly neo-Nazi publications spring up.

Via the mail order company, Nord Effekter, the people behind Fritt Forum advertise t-shirts, books, magazines and music  . Some of its selections are openly Nazi propaganda, such as the book Turner diaries (by William Pierce, leader of the American National Alliance) , and CDs from such groups as No Remorse (U.K) and Pluton Svea (Sweden). Consequently, at the end of 1996, the police began to investigate Nord Effekter for breaking the legislation against racism. The sate attorney sent the case back to the police for further investigation: it was not yet concluded by the end of 1997.
Among other things, the  Nord Effekter selection contains products from the violent British thugs, C-18, but Free Forum stays neutral in the ongoing internal struggle within the international Nazi/skinhead movement between C-18 and Blood and Honour on one hand, and the American-based Resistance Records on the other.

Until recently the Norwegian extreme right imported most of its music from abroad and its links with Swedish organisations have been especially strong. Members of Norwegian groups often go to the neighbouring countries to take part in concerts and demonstrations such as the Rudolf Hess memorial march in Koege in Denmark in August 1997 and different concerts in Sweden.

In the last couple of years the Norwegian extreme right has adopted the strategy of using concerts and music to recruit young members. One consequence of this strategy has been an increase in the number of Nazi bands, as well as the efforts to organise mass concerts. Because of public pressure, and anti-racist demonstrations, they have never been able to organise big concerts. The only reason why they have managed to arrange their concerts at all is that the police have protected the events. Critics says that this might turn Norway into a free-zone for European Nazis, and the government is now discussing how to deal with the problem.
Norwegian Nazis are also operating a few Internet pages. The contents are highly abusive and offensive. Some domains have shut down the Nazi pages after pressure from anti-racist groups, but they are often moved to another domain in USA, where they can promote their hatred under protection from the American constitution.

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Even though Norwegian neo-Nazis are few, divided and miserably organised, they have always had some potential for violence. Every time their dream of parliamentary success is shattered, they turn to physical force. Their history is full of killings, bombings, arson, assaults and shoot-outs. There is a possibility that out of electoral frustration, they will try to escalate their assaults against immigrants, anti-racists and leftists. For the time being, they seem content to occupy themselves with running hate pages on the Internet and ordering Nazi music and paraphernalia from mail-order companies.

After the elections in 1997, many of the older cadres, trying to keep up a respectable front, are frustrated. Some of the young Nazis have turned into a larger degree of militancy, without any success, as they, because of the great number of police informers within their ranks, always seem to get arrested before they manage to cause any damage.

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